Sir Walter Raleigh sent the first English colonists to Roanoke Island in 1585. The colony disappeared before the second supply ship arrived in 1590. The mystery of this colony's disappearance has never been solved. In 1629, King Charles I gave all of the land from 31 degrees North latitude to 36 degrees North latitude and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean to Robert Heath. This land was called Caralana (or Carolina) which is Latin for "Land of Charles." Heath did not get any colonists to come to Caralana and he lost his claim to the land. In 1663, King Charles II gave Caralana to eight of his friends. They built Albemarle County in the North and Charles Town in the South. In 1665, King Charles II made Caralana larger to include Albemarle County. Indian wars, pirates, disagreements with Virginia over tobacco shipments, and bad leaders kept the Caralana colony from growing. Finally in 1712, the northern part of Caralana was made into a separate colony because the leaders of Caralana were divided between Charles Town and Albemarle County which caused many problems. Edward Hyde was made the governor of North Carolina
In 1729, King George II bought both Caralanas. He made a better government and the settlement grew. North Carolina and British groups fought during the French and Indian War from 1758 to 1763. The eastern colonists ran the government and increased taxes on the poor western settlers. In 1771, the western colonists started the War of Regulation. Governor William Tryon defeated the western settlers on May 16, 1771. British control of North Carolina ended when Governor Josiah Martin fled in May 1775. During the Revolutionary War, the settlers supporting the British government fought against the colonists wanting independence.
The colonists settled in North Carolina because Virginia was too crowded. The colonists were made up of men, women, and children mainly from England. Most of the colonists were Quakers, Calvinists. Lutherans, and Presbyterians who wanted religious freedom. They made their houses from wood because trees were plentiful in North Carolina. They grew rice, corn, cotton, and tobacco. They saved all the produce for themselves. They hunted for their meat. They made their money by selling tobacco from the small tobacco fields. Unfortunately, they could not talk to people in other colonies unless they sent letters. They walked and used horses to get places.
The Tuscarora Indians were the first Indians the Carolina settlers encountered. The Tuscarora Indians wanted peace. The Tuscarora Indians wrote a letter to the Governor asking the settlers to give back their land. The letter was ignored by the governor. As a result, the Tuscarora Indians declared war on the Carolina settlers. Soon after the war started, the settlers defeated the Tuscarora Indians.
The second tribe of Indians the North Carolina settlers encountered was the Catawba Indians. These Indians were rather friendly and traded with the settlers. The settlers did not mind the Catawba Indians staying in North Carolina because they were friendly. The Catawba Indians moved to the mountains to stay out of the settlers' way.
The third tribe of Indians the settlers encountered was the Cherokee Indians. Right away, the Cherokee Indians declared war since they did not want to give up their lands. Four months after the war began, the Cherokee Indians were defeated and moved back to their former home in New York. The Cherokee Indians helped the British during the Revolutionary War and continued fighting the colonists until 1794.